Eskimos Aid United States War Effort
NOTES AND COMMENTS ON THE CONTRIBUTIONS
By F. W. LaRouche
In Charge Of Information and Publications
As the magazine goes to press J. C. McCaskill, Chief of the Indian Serv-
ice Planning and Development Branch brings word of the rapid advancement of plans
for settling 20,000 Japanese evacuees on the Colorado River Indian Reservation in
southwest Arizona. The story appears on page 12. In the Southwest Mr. McCaskill
conferred with Indians of the Reservation, with Indian Service officials and with Mil-
ton S. Eisenhower, Director of the new War Relocation Authority.
New buildings for the evacuees are being constructed rapidly by the Army
and the first contingent of evacuees was scheduled to arrive on Monday March 30.
Mr. C. H. Gensler, Superintendent of the Colorado River Agency, Robert H. Rupkey,
Project Engineer, Irrigation Service at Parker, and A. L. Walker, Agricultural Econ-
omist, have been working very closely with the Army and the War Relocation Author-
ity. Mrs. Lucy Wilcox Adams, Chief of the Social Services Branch,has gone from
Washington to Colorado River to assist in the gigantic and hurried task.
The front cover photo of Andrew Sannoow, Eskimo of Elephant Point,
Alaska, was made by Ray Dame, Department of the Interior. Eskimos are exceeding-
ly active in war work and extremely loyal to their government. Some details of their
work appear in the article which begins on page 5.
The photo on page 6 was sent ty Mrs. Joseph Lindon Smith, Adviser, In-
dian Welfare Committee, General Federation of Women's Clubs, who writes: "My
son-in-law who is a Lieutenant-Commander, U.S.N .R. has been stationed at the Nav-
al Aviation Base in Atlanta, where this Indian, Thomas Oxendine from Pembroke,
North Carolina, is in training as a flight student. Commander Harrigan in charge of
this base gave me the photograph to send you."
The frontispiece is a reproduction of an original drawing by Tom Dorsey,
an Iroquois Indian artist. It was sent to "Indians At Work" by Mr, J. D. Hatch, Di-
rector of the Albany Institute of History and Art. Mr. Dorsey writes that his draw-
ing Ga-Wa-Ta, or Snow Snake, represents: "An exciting mid-winter game of the
Eastern Indian. Played with polished shafts resembling a snake, the player who is
skillful usually can send his shaft gliding, head erect, over a log-drawn track of fresh
snow to win some of the high stakes wagered at this gala event. The figure is poised
for a 'throw', and is clad in comfortable Iroquois winter wear of old. This game is
still being enjoyed by the Eastern people."
The back cover photograph of Santa Ana Indians was made by Frank Werner,
Interior Department photographer. These Indians are of the Pueblo whose members
after the Pearl Harbor attack, went back for a whole month to their ancient home to
pray for the people of the world. The story is on page 5.
Indian loyalty in the far northwest is touched upon in an article on page
27 in which Mrs. Will D. Jenkins of Bellingham, Washington, writes of the traditional
ceremonial gathering: "Participants come from all over the State and from British
Columbia. 'Indians at Work' has been an inspiration to my husband and me ever
since we first discovered it, but we notice the lack of Puget Sound representation.
Hence this article and letter. For about three years we have visited the Indians and
attended nearly all celebrations. We are inspired by their old-time philosophies and
enjoy their dances and ceremonials with deep respect. I have written three primers
on Puget Sound Indian life before the coming of the whites. (They) are being studied
here in the school for the third year."
Notes On The Contributions Inside Front Cover
Editorial John Collier
The Ideal Or Guiding Principle Of Indian
Service J- C 3
Indians In The War For Freedom 5
Thomas Harjo, Seminole (Photo by Douglas
A Member of the CCC-ID Defense Training
Class At Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin
(Photo by John Vachon) 10
First Japanese Evacuee Colony Is On Colo-
rado Indian Lands 12
Many Employees Are Retiring 15
Sioux Indian Leaves For Active Duty As
Army Officer 17
A Yakima Indian Boy In A War Job Lloyd D. Weir 19
Indian Democracy Theodore H. Haas 21
Indians In The Nejvs 25
Indians Of Northwest Celebrate A Treaty
And Pledge Their Allegiance Anew Mildred Jenkins 27
Indian Schools Adjust Schedules To Aid War
Dean King, Haskell Student, Tests Electric
Motors (Photo by Gordon Brown) 29
From The Mail Bag 30
Interior Department Mobilizes For Victory ... Harry B. Gauss 33
"Victory Year" Outlined For Indian Con-
servation Corps '. D. E. Murphy Inside Back Cover
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR * OFFICE OF INDIAN AFFAIRS -WASHINGTON, DC.
A Ntws Sift For INDIANS and me INDIAN SERVICE
VOLUME IX APRIL 1942 NUMBER 8
Nine years of this Indian administration will be finished April 21st, I
started, last week, to review this nine- year effort of the Service and the Indians in
order to answer this question: Has the effort been important to the country, and not
only to the Indians? Has it been important to the world? A tornado of new work-
demands cut short this attempted review, but I do report one strong impression.
That impression has emerged into so many Indian minds, increasingly,
in these months of vast struggle - these world- engulfing months. It is, that the In-
dians have a peculiarly deep devotion to democracy. That devotion is why they are
moved with such unanimity to such diverse efforts in the war. They know it is Ar-
mageddon in very truth - verily "a last Trafalgar of the soul." What, then, have
these past nine years of Indian effort had to do with democracy?
They have reversed the operating principle of nearly a century. Author-
ity, denying the Indian's human past, demanding that for his own soul he substitute
another soul, treated him (the Indian) as passive material which authority would
shape to something new. This material, to be shaped by authority, was individual In-
dians reft away from their groups and their heritages.
The changed operating principle - partly an ideal, partly an achieved
policy - centers in Indian self-activity, individual and group. It asserts that heri-
tage is essential in personality formation. It works to minimize authority. It de-
clares that the Indian is his own maker of fate. It tries to help lead into the great
world not a denatured and submitting Indian but a whole Indian, whole in his social
being, and a choosing and asserting, not a submitting Indian.
This over-simplified description of the past, and of the change, must suf-
fice for this editorial. On page 3 of this issue, I do try to state a little more fully
the ultimate guiding principles (ideals, if one will) of the endeavor of these nine
"Snow Snake " a drawing by Tom Dorsey, Iroquois Indian.
Details on inside front cover page.
years. How much of the positive practical program they do not even imply, and how
far off is their adequate realization, I have tried to suggest in "Unfinished Tasks of
Indian Service," which will be sent upon request to any reader.
Now to the world-value of what the Indians have done in these nine years.
They have newly created, or adapted and reinvigorated, a quarter of a
thousand local democracies. These local democracies are of very modern and,
again, of very ancient forms. They are not only political but are industrial and so-
cial. Establishing a true social control, they have increased the liberty, the oppor-
tunity and the energy of their individuals.
Too fatally often, in different parts of the world in these bitter years,
democratic government has seemed to be incompetent for social action. And too of-
ten it has seemed to lower, not to lift, the level of tension, of striving, of sacrifice,
of realistic thinking and of moral action of its individual members. Let us not deny
that which is of the essence of the crisis of our whole world. Forms of democracy
can fail to produce living democracy, and then comes social mortal illness.
What the Indians in these nine years - deepening and diversifying with
each year - have furnished to the world, is the proof that democracy when it is pro-
foundly realized, and when it forges out for itself adequate mechanisms of consulta-
tion and of action, is a mighty power. It is the only power mighty in the long run - in
the end. It wakens and sustains individual life deep, impassioned, purposeful and
self-controlled. It canalizes that life by free choice into social action benign and not
degrading. It is the only hope of our world - in the time beyond this Armageddon of
military war. The war within peoples after the military war, and within the soul, can
have no end except the victory of the spirit through democracy. There is not even
any other way of hope for lasting peace after this world-war ends.
I do not give examples of what the Indians have done in democracy.
Many publications have told the record. The application of Indian democracy to us-
ing and saving the land is one item of the record, of importance surely to our whole
nation and to the Hemisphere. Its application to the production of beauty is another
item. But chiefly, its application to human nature - the human nature whose good or
ill shaping is the good or ill shaping of the world. Indian democracy has mined from
the long-discouraged deeps of Indian human and social nature the energies and the
consecrations which make a great life. This is the world-fruitage of these nine
Commissioner of Indian Affairs
THE IDEAL OR GUIDING PRINCIPLE OF INDIAN SERVICE
Indian adjustment is a group process, not only an individual one; and is
fundamentally a group process. (Just as white adjustment is,)
Group adjustment and individual adjustment are based upon the past -
Both adjustments have to proceed by conscious free choice from within;
neither the group nor the individual is passive material to be shaped from without.
By all available methods, the strongest and most incessant stimulation
toward free choice and toward the employment of the greatest range of native powers
(individual and group) must be supplied.
Adjustment from within, which is democracy, will not be achieved with
profoundness unless difficult important goals are set up and unless genuine hazard
be made a part of the situation. The choices to be made must be fraught with con-
sequences good or bad. If they entail conflict within the group, this has its positive
value too - its value for wise choice, its dynamogenic value and its leadership-de-
The "adjustment" is a use of all that is native in order to cope with the
nature-world and the man-world within which group and individual alike are placed.
Intensification of coping with the world and intensification of realization and assert-
ing of inward energies and values, including traditional ones, are actions dependent
on one another. Preservation of tradition thus is made the opposite of retreat from
that part of "reality" known as struggle, work, modernization. It is successful ad -
vance into that part of "reality." And reciprocally, the conquest of reality is by vir-
tue of, and in behalf of, inward values, group survival, and tradition. This reciproc-
ity of tradition, inwardness - and adjustment, environment- conquest, modern social
action - can be realized by Indians as perhaps not by any other elements in our popu-
lation in the United States.
The above, as a whole, is of the spirit - of direct life-intensification - of
the immediate nourishment of man by man; and it is also of mechanism. An essen-
tial part of the group-adjustment is the establishment of mechanisms of social and
political action, including political governments but including also, integrated with
political government, industrial enterprise and government and total social action.
The establishment of these mechanisms is the business of the group it-
self; the mechanisms of democracy are experimentally forged out by the group seek-
ing to preserve its democracy, increase it, empower it. Hence, diversity of mechan-
isms is to be anticipated: diversity of tradition, of practical situation, of external
goals, will produce diversity of democratic mechanisms.
"indirect administration" is implied in the whole of the above; but indi-
rection is carried across not merely to accomplish administrative purposes with
minimum of shock, but to make of the governing power primarily an agent of cataly-
siSo Its aims are directly and predominately creative.
Captain Ernest Edward McClish, Choctaw of Oklahoma, is a graduate of
Haskell Institute. Before being called to active duty he was a Lieutenant in Company
K, 179th Infantry, Oklahoma National Guard. This picture was taken at the Third
Army maneuvers in Louisiana. He is now believed to be with the American forces
in the Philippine Islands, and has assumed the duties of a Major. Photo by U. S.
Army Signal Corps.
INDIANS IN THE WAR FOR FREEDOM
Indians, the truest Americans, everywhere in the United States are deep-
ly concerned and intensely occupied with the prosecution of the war for freedom.
From Alaska to Mississippi and from Arizona to Maine, the Indians are giving their
lands, their savings, their skills and their lives in the service of their country. In
numbers, it is believed, exceeding the per capita contributions of any racial group,
including the white, Indians are enlisting in the Navy, the Marine Corps, the Coast
Guard and the Army. Their peculiar, inherited talents make them uniquely valuable.
In civilian war work they are equally zealous, and equally effective.
Technical training of recent years has converted many Indian men from laborers to
specialists. Natural gifts of precision, endurance, poise and high intelligence add
great value to their services. War industries are seeking Indian workmen in great-
er numbers than they can be supplied.
Indians In Every Branch Of Service
Prior to the Japanese assault at Pearl Harbor Indians in the Army alone
numbered 4,481, of whom approximately 60 per cent had enlisted in either the Regu-
lar Army or the National Guard. In addition to Indians who are Naval Officers, there
are 40 Indians in the Navy in branches exclusive of the Marine Corps and the Coast
Guard. Perhaps the outstanding Indian Naval Officer is Commander Francis J. Mee,
a Chippewa born in Detroit Lakes, Minnesota. Commander Mee has just been pro-
moted from the rank of Lieutenant Commander and has been shifted from the United
States destroyer Ellet to a post on the heavy cruiser Portland, where he commands
several hundred men. His colleagues and superiors express a deep respect and re-
gard for Commander Mee, who is familiarly identified as "Chief" Mee.
One reason why the services of Indians in the armed forces is important
is because of the special skills which are part of the Indian heritage. As scouts,
runners, in signal work and in other fields, the modern Indian has demonstrated spe-
cial aptitudes which are being rapidly recognized and utilized by their commanders.
Items rewritten from the Nation's newspapers reveal typical instances
of Indian military performances:
Montana Indian Wins Distinguished Service Cross
The fortitude of Private Charley Ball, a 24-year-old Indian boy from the
Fort Belknap Reservation in northern Montana, while fighting with General Mac-
Arthur's forces on Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines, has won him the Distinguished
Service Cross. In a dispatch from the Bataan fighting front,it is related that Private'
Ball was wounded in a battle against Japanese forces, but despite his wounds he help-
ed cover the withdrawal of his comrades in the 21st Infantry. Ball has two brothers
in the armed forces.
During the opening weeks of the war^it was reported that about 15 young
braves from the Sac and Fox Reservation near Tama, Iowa, enlisted in the Army.
The great, great grandson of old
Chief Winnemucca, young Stanley Winnemucca,
of Nixon, Nevada, has been accepted by the
Marine Corps. Almost a century ago Chief
Winnemucca led his warriors to one of the
greatest victories ever won by Indian fighters
over whites in the battle of Pyramid Lake. He
later was a leader in preserving peace in Ne-
Kitus Tecumseh, descendant of fa-
mous Chief Tecumseh and a member of the
United States Navy in World War I, visited the
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Naval Recruiting Station
to ask for enlistment in the present war. He
served on a submarine chaser in 1918 and is
classed as 33 per cent disabled as a result of
wounds received then.
Indian soldiers at Fort Benning,
Georgia, have shown adeptness in the white
man's war games. One of the top Sergeants
has reported that they're making good soldiers.
At the time of this report, which was made be-
fore war was declared, there were 16 Indians
from Oklahoma in the Fourth Signal Battalion
at Fort Benning. "Those Indians are the best
morale tonic on the shelf", maintains the First Sergeant. "They take a hard job and
make a game of it. We could use more like 'em."
Thomas Oxendine, 20-year-old Cherokee
Indian of North Carolina, a flight
student at the U. S. N. R. Aviation
Base, Atlanta, Georgia.
Indian Home Guard
What was believed to be the first Indian home guard unit in the West was
formed about ten days after war was declared at the Kaschia Indian Reservation near
Stewarts Point, California. In all, 17 local Indians took up arms in a voluntary or-
ganization that will supplant the Stewarts Point listening post, organized as part of
the Aircraft Warning Service.
In September 1941, the Army and Navy Journal reported that Joseph G.
Guyon, who is a member of the Chippewa Tribe of Minnesota, was undergoing train-
ing as a Naval Aviation Cadet at the United States Naval Air Station, Jacksonville,
Florida. He probably was the first Indian to fly for the Navy.
Second Lieutenant Leonard R. Farron, subsequent to his training in aer-
onautical engineering at the University of Washington, was appointed a flying cadet
and commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the Army Air Corps on December 13, 1941.
He was assigned to the fighter plane base at Hamilton Field. Mr. Farron is a mem-
ber of the Puyallup Indian Tribe.
The reaction of the Pueblo of Santa Ana was typical of many Indian groups.
Immediately after Pearl Harbor the Santa Ana Indians left their homes and went se-
cretly to their ancient shrine. There, in their former home long since abandoned,
the entire Pueblo remained for one unbroken month in secret prayer. Their prayers
were for the people of all the world. News of the pilgrimage became known only
when the Indians sent word to the authorities that they intended to build a great fire
at the conclusion of their ceremonies. They wanted the Army to know that this was a
sacramental fire and not the result of sabotage or overt enemy action.
The Pueblo of Zia engaged in prayer before the second Selective Service
registration. Other groups have in much the same manner reacted to the catastro-
phe that has struck the world. Indians of Jemez Pueblo pledged themselves to utilize
their lands to the very maximum to help win the war.
At the remote Pueblo of Zuni, in New Mexico, the feeling of the Indians is
exemplified by this paragraph sent in by the day school principal:
"The Red Cross drive was announced from the housetop and in a blinding
snowstorm, the canvassing started. Each household contributed and in each case the
wheat, corn, or hay was ready when someone called. Very often there is more than
one family in one house and each wanted to contribute. If a door was missed, word
was passed on to call at that particular house. One little girl wanted to do her part,
too. She whispered something in her mother's ear and then rushed in the next room
and brought back a nickel. The family of Edgar Lunasee who is in the Philippines and
from whom no word has been received, expressed willingness to help by donat-
ing six dollars and two rings. Ike Wilson, an outstanding Navajo silversmith living
in Zuni, solicited the Navajos working in the village and they responded 100 per cent."
Buy Defense Bonds
Five Navajo families who were recently awarded $15,000 as compensa-
tion for the death of six Indian children in a train and school bus collision in 1936 im-
mediately invested $5,500 of the amount in Defense Bonds. In addition, two Indian
boys, injured in the crash, received $1,000 apiece, and each purchased a $500 Bond.
Purchase of Treasury Stamps and Bonds by Indian groups and individuals
has been considerable. A great many of these transactions do not come officially to
the attention of the Indian Service because the purchases are made locally with funds
not under Government jurisdiction. On record in Washington are purchases of
$1,270,000 in Treasury Bonds from April, 1941 to the present. These are not De-
fense Bonds but the money is, nevertheless, available to the Government. Applica-
tions now pending for the purchase of Treasury and Defense Bonds total $19,000.
The money for these purchases came from both tribal and individual funds from the
sale of land, timber, oil and gas leases, etc.
Applications have been received from various tribes for the purchase of
approximately $750,000 in Defense Bonds, but as the funds involved are already in
the United States Treasury, nothing wbuld be gained by the purchases and, therefore,
the Interior Department disapproved the requests. The spirit of the Indians in mak-
ing these requests provides further evidence of their patriotic spirit.
Chee Dodge, last of the Navajo war chiefs has purchased $20,000 of Unit-
ed States Defense Bonds, and has urged Navajos in New Mexico, Arizona and Utah to
buy Bonds "as generously as possible." In response to the establishment of sales
committees over the Navajo Reservation, Indians are buying Bonds in mounting num-
bers, Superintendent Fryer of the Navajo Agency has reported.
The Crow Tribe of Montana offered to the Government all of its resources
and all of its man power for the prosecution of the war. The Superintendent, him-
self a Crow Indian, has reported that approximately 70 men and boys of the Tribe
have gone into the Service. This is a very large proportion of the eligible man pow-
er on the reservation. His son is among those who have already gone into the Army.
Even the girls and women of the Crow Tribe are reportedly desirous of entering ac-
tive military service. The Superintendent stated that several women have already
applied for enlistment and he seeks informationas to how such service can be arranged.
In Alaska, the Indians and Eskimos are making many contributions which
for military reasons cannot be discussed. However, it is no secret that in a consid-
erable area centering at Nome more than 300 women and children (and one man) are
working day and night to fashion mukluks (skin boots) parkas (fur outer garments),
fur caps, mittens and fur pants for the soldiers. The Army has just ordered 5,000
additional mukluks. All of the work is being done through the Nome Skin Sewers As-
sociation, a cooperative organized by the Indian Service under the provisions of the
Alaska Act of 1936, a counterpart of the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
Many natives are turning over their boats to the armed forces. In one
case the incorporated members of a tribe offered land for an air base, without com-
pensation. The land has been accepted but, in the interests of fairness, some pay-
ment was provided.
Indians In War Industries
In industry, special Indian skills, largely developed through training and
experience received through Indian Service schools, the Indian CCC and the various
technical branches of the Indian Service, are becoming increasingly useful in the war
effort. At least 2,500 Indians are now regularly employed in vital war industries. A
great many others are receiving special training in schools established by the Indian
In many aircraft factories Indians are being employed in such numbers
and with such success that the supply of available workers has lagged behind the de-
mand. Some aircraft plants have placed standing orders with Indian Service Superin-
tendents for as many Indian boys or men as can be supplied. Many Indian groups and
individuals, including women, are using their own funds to pay for useful technical
A total of 736 Indian trainees are enrolled in 43 CCC national defense
training courses. At least 75 per cent of those who have completed earlier courses
are now employed in defense industries. Defense courses are also being carried on
in the Indian schools. Between 700 and 800 have gone from these schools into defense
employment. Airplane plants at Wichita, Kansas, and Tulsa, Oklahoma, are employ-
ing the Indians trained in the Indian schools and CCC organizations in the Oklahoma
area. 80 Haskell students and approximately 150 Indian CCC trained men are em-
ployed there. Airplane manufacturing plants in southern California have employed
approximately 200 Indians. Shipyards in Seattle and in the San Francisco area em-
ploy about 75 Indians.
Thomas Harjo, Seminole,
A Metal Fabricator At
Fifteen former CCC Indians are working at Shasta Dam in California.
Various other defense industries account for employment of former CCC-ID enrollees ,
among them shipyard welders, signal operators, airplane welders, working at Navy
ammunition dumps, lumber mills, and on the construction of military roads. One
former CCC-ID enrollee is a radio engineer in the Civilian Technical Corps of Can-
ada, and two are with a contractor at the Panama Canal.
The total CCC-ID effort is now being devoted to war work construction,
and the protection and development of natural resources necessary to the prosecu-
tion of the war.
The following Indian Service schools conduct national defense training
courses: Chemawa School, Chemawa, Oregon; Chilocco School, Chilocco, Oklahoma;
Flandreau School, Flandreau, South Dakota; Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas;
A Member Of The CCC-ID Defense Training Class At Lac du Flambeau, Wisconsin, Learns To Solder
Phoenix School, Phoenix, Arizona; Sherman Institute, Riverside, California. At Has-
kell Institute, which is fairly typical, the following courses are given: Welding, auto
mechanics, carpentry, electricity, machine shop, painting, plumbing, power plant op-
eration, and institutional cooking.
The following national defense training courses are given by CCC-ID:
Aircraft welding, auto mechanics, carpentry, general mechanics, motor mechanics,
operation, care and repair of trucks, tractors and autos, radio maintenance and re-
pair, repair and maintenance of automobile equipment, welding, woodworking.
A substantial number of Indian technicians were employed at military
and naval bases in the Pacific and elsewhere. Probably some of these are casualties
A few incidents of Indian civilian activities as reported in the press are
worthy of record:
Hikes Fourteen Miles To Drill
Leo John, 30-year-old Lummi Reservation Indian, has been hiking 14
miles twice a week to drill with the Bellingham Home Guard, Company I, 4th Wash-
ington Volunteer Infantry, ever since he joined six months ago. John, married and
deferred in the draft because of dependents, enlisted in the home guard. One night he
showed up soaking wet and when questioned, explained he walked from the Reserva-
tion to the Armory for drill. He had missed only two drills, because of sickness.
Impressed by pictures of famine conditions in Poland, the little Supai In-
dian Tribe, numbering about 200, which lives in the isolated Havasu Canyon, has
plowed up the whole bottom of the canyon, and farming machinery is being packed
down a tortuous trail on the backs of ponies to help along the war production effort.
The Chippewa Indians of Michigan, numbering 1,000, are now formally at
war with the Axis, pledging in their formal war declaration, to "stand by Uncle Sam
to the end as we always have." They further declared: "We are standing once more
shoulder to shoulder with our white brothers as we did with George Washington at
Valley Forge and in every war for liberty."
Indian Service hospitals are training Indians as hospital orderlies. The
Indian Extension Service is encouraging Indians to raise more of their own food than
ever before and to utilize their lands to raise food and other crops essential to the
war effort. Indian women are being trained in truck driving, first-aid, and in nutri-
tion. Indians on many reservations are being organized in civilian defense work,
particularly in areas where parachutists might cause damage to transportation or
communication lines. Indian lands, hospitals, buildings, and Indian Service person-
nel and facilities are being inventoried by Indian Service field officials in prepara-
tion for a possible evacuation of the West Coast.
FIRST JAPANESE EVACUEE COLONY IS ON COLORADO RIVER INDIAN LANDS'
The first large-scale relocation of Japanese residents being evacuated
from West Coast military areas will be made on the Colorado River Indian Reserva-
tion at Parker, Arizona, where 20,000 alien and citizen Japanese are to be moved by
the Army. The colonization plan has been worked out by the newly-formed War Re-
location Authority, the United States Indian Service, the Indians who own the land,
and the War Department.
The plan provides for temporary, self-sustaining colonies, four or five
in number, for the purpose, first of furnishing homes and useful employment to the
evacuated Japanese, and secondly to prepare the land for use after the war. Approx-
imately 90,000 acres of land are available for development of irrigated farming, with
an adequate supply of water to be diverted from the Colorado River by the Headgate
Rock Dam, recently completed by the Indian Irrigation Service.
The War Relocation Authority, through the Indian Service, will be respon-
sible for general management of the colonies, and for the technical aspects of subju-
gation of the land, in which the Japanese will be employed in construction of irriga-
tion canals, leveling of lands, and preparation of the land for cultivation. The Army
has undertaken the building of homes and other essential structures on the Reserva-
tion and will transport the Japanese to the colonies and provide military guard serv-
Headgate Rock Dam
. h tmmm
-4 Long-Haired Yuma Farmer Uses Modern Agricultural Machinery. Colorado River Agency.
Three features of the plan were particularly emphasized by Milton S.
Eisenhower, Director of the War Relocation Authority:
(1) That the settlement is purely temporary and the land will revert to
the Indians at the end of the war.
(2) That the relocation will be handled to provide the maximum useful
work contributing to the war effort, and
(3) That the project will be designed to provide humane and constructive
living and working conditions for the colonists.
The War Department already has authorized the shipment to the Reserva-
tion of building materials adequate for construction of facilities for 20,000 persons.
As soon as adequate facilities have been constructed the Army will begin transport-
ing evacuees from military areas to the project.
One of the first big tasks the Japanese will undertake will be digging can-
als to bring water to the land so that subsistence gardening may start as soon as pos-
sible. Besides raising food for their own use and preparing the land for the future
use of the Indians, the colonists may find useful work raising crops particularly
needed for the war effort. A number of possibilities, such as production of guayule
and long staple cotton, are now being studied by the Indian Service, Department of
Agriculture, and other interested agencies.
To a large extent the communities will be complete local units with doc-
tors, nurses, teachers, and other specialists provided by the Japanese themselves.
Indian Women Pick Cotton At Colorado River.
MANY EMPLOYEES WITH LONG SERVICE ARE RETIRING
In the next few weeks and in the last few months a number of the older
Indian Service employees in the Washington Office will retire, or have retired, un-
der provisions of the new Retirement Act. This Act provides for optional retirement at
the age of 55 years after 30 years of service, and at the age of 62 after 15 years of
Most of these employees began their Indian Service careers with modest
salaries of $600- $900 per year. Most of them are retiring at salaries of $1800-
$1940, although a few in supervisory or professional positions receive higher sal-
Head of the Retirement and Records Unit of the Personnel Division is
Miss Helen V. Bridge, who plans to retire the day the Indian Office starts moving to
Chicago. This will be the eighth time Miss Bridge has seen the location of the Indian
offices changed during her 38 years of service. She has been employed continuously
in the Washington Office, topping the record of all the retiring employees.
Fernando G. Tranbarger, Associate Attorney in the Land Claims Unit,
retired February 28 after thirty-one and a half years in the Indian Service. A vet-
eran of two wars, Mr. Tranbarger began his Government career as a school teacher
in the Philippines while the islands were under martial law.
Last December after the Japanese attack came, Mr. Tranbarger offered
his services to his country a third time. Instead of enlisting for military service as
he did in the Spanish-American War and the World War, this'time Mr. Tranbarger
filed an application with the Judge-Advocate General's office. Mr. Tranbarger was
employed at the Carlisle Indian School, Pennsylvania, at Albuquerque Indian School,
New Mexico, and at Cherokee Indian School, North Carolina, before joining the Wash-
ington staff. He began legal work in 1921.
Also a veteran of the Spanish- American War is Walter L. Simpson of the
Mails and Files Division, who will retire this month. Like Mr. Tranbarger, he was
with the Army as a young man in the Philippines, China, Japan, and other Far East-
ern points. Entering the Government service as a lieutenant of the watch at the
Patent Office in 1913, Mr. Simpson transferred to the Indian Service in 1917 and has
worked in the Mails and Files Division continuously ever since. At one time he was
in charge of the Division for a period of ten years.
The Mails and Files Division lost another old faithful employee in John
M. Perry, who retired March 31. A veteran of past wars, Mr. Perry joined the In-
dian Service as a clerk in 1919. He transferred to the Kiowa Indian Agency as a
farmer in 1920, then returned to the Washington Office in 1922.
Miss Clara B. Kinne, Assistant Clerk in the Fiscal Division, retired
March 31 after 35 years of service. She was first employed as a teacher at Fort
Totten, North Dakota, transferred to Fort Hall Agency in Idaho in 1914, and to Pierre
School, South Dakota, in 1915. In 1919 she joined the Washington Office staff as a
Mrs. Ella L. Moses, Assistant ClerK-Stenographer in the Irrigation Divi-
sion, will retire April 30 with 32 years of service. Mrs. Moses was first employed
as a Clerk at Chilocco Indian School, Oklahoma, was transferred to Leech Lake,
Minnesota in 1915, and to the Washington Office in 1917. She has been employed in the
Irrigation Division continuously since 1918.
For some months Mrs. Lucy G. Shaw, Clerk in the Fiscal Division, has
not been at her desk because of ill health. She entered the Government Service in
1918 at the Treasury Department, a few months later received a job in the War De-
partment, and in 1920 transferred to the Indian Service. The official date of her re-
tirement was January 31.
Miss Jane C. Farrington, Clerk- Stenographer in the Extension Division,
who will retire April 30, came to Washington during the last war. She transferred to
the Indian Service in 1920.
U. S. Supreme Court Upholds Yakima Fishing Rights
A unanimous decision of the United States Supreme Court, upholding the
provisions of a treaty of 1855 between the United States Government and the Yakima
Indians of Washington, was hailed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes as a
sweeping and significant victory for a minority people against the interests and
claims of a dominant majority, and as an evidence of the sacredness with which the
United States upholds treaty obligations.
In sustaining the position of the Interior Department in the Yakima fish-
ing case, the Supreme Court, on March 30, affirmed the sanctity of Indian treaties
and denied the contention of the State of Washington that Indian treaty rights must
yield to State laws for the licensing of fishermen.
The decision of March 30, holding that the Yakima Indians are entitled to
the protection of a Federal treaty guaranteeing them the perpetual right to fish at
"accustomed places" in the Columbia River, represents the twenty- seventh Supreme
Court victory won by Nathan R. Margold, Solicitor of the Interior Department. Since
March 1933 the Department has been successful in every case it has had before the
high court in which the validity of Departmental action by this Administration has
been challenged. This is believed to be a record unexcelled by any other Department
of the Federal Government.
The decision climaxes along series of disputes as to the rights of Indians
in the Northwest to fishin their "usual and accustomed places", outside the reserva-
vations, without payment by them of license fees required by State law. No question
was raised as to the right of Indians to hunt and fish on their reservations.
The case at issue deals with the question of the State's right to license
Indians. Sampson Tulee, a member of the Yakima Tribe was charged by information
filed in the Superior Court for Klickitat County, Washington, with the offense of hav-
ing caught salmon with a dip-bag net and with selling commercially the fish he had
caught without obtaining a State license. It is expected that the decision of the Su-
preme Court will have far-reaching influence in the interpretation of Indian treaties
insofar as they deal with fishing rights in the Northwest.
OUTSTANDING SIOUX INDIAN LEAVES INDIAN SERVICE
FOR ACTIVE DUTY AS ARMY OFFICER
Ben Re if el
Mr. Ben Reifel, Organ-
ization Field Agent for the Plains
area and for several years a re-
serve officer, has been called to
active duty in the United States
Army as a First Lieutenant of In-
fantry. For the present Lieuten-
ant Reifel is stationed at Fort
Lieutenant Reifel is a
Rosebud Sioux, a graduate of the
South Dakota State College at
Brookings, and has done graduate
work at the University of Wiscon-
sin. His intense interest in the
region and the people with whom
he worked and his sincere desire
to be of service to them, combined
with his superior mentality, unu-
sual ability and likeable personal-
ity, have made him one of the most
widely and favorably known mem-
bers of the Indian Service field
personnel. He has made a hobby
of collecting bulletins, maps, re-
ports and other information per-
taining to the Plains area and mak-
ing them available to other workers
in the area. He had the faculty of
seeing the pertinent problems in a
given situation and usually gave
some interesting comment or suggestion as to the solution of the problem pointed out.
Lieutenant Reifel's first position in the Indian Service was as a district
farmer on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota. He was called to the
Indian Organization unit soon after its formation and has been connected with it ever
since, first as field agent for North and South Dakota, and then as representative of
the Plains area.
Lieutenant Reifel's wife and small daughter will remain in Pierre, South
Dakota, until June when they will join him if he is stationed where this is possible.
Ira Showaway, Yakima Indian, Working In The Machine Shop, Producing Rivet Sets For The Naval Air Station
A YAK/MA INDIAN BOY IN A WAR JOB
By Lloyd D. Weir
Condensed From An Article In the Sunday Seattle Times, March 8, 19/^2
When war flared in the Pacific, Joe Saluskin was an Indian youth on an-
cestral lands of the Yakimas. As a boy, he donned beaded regalia and danced at pow-
wows. As a youth he straddled wild- eyed ponies and pounded around tracks in rodeo
The name Saluskin has been respected around council fires of the Yakima
Tribe for many, many winters. The late Chief Jim Saluskin was Joe's grand-uncle.
His father, Alex Saluskin, today is a tribal councilman and spokesman for his people
in conferences with their white brethern.
Joe crossed the Cascades last month and became a student worker at the
Seattle Resident Project of the National Youth Administration. There he is learning
to be a riveter. He hopes soon to be working on military planes at the Boeing Aircraft
Company. Joe visions that driving each rivet into a plane will be like shooting an ar-
row into the heart of a foe across the Pacific or Atlantic. Joe is one of about two doz-
en Pacific Northwest Indian youths now taking training courses in shops of the Seattle
project. Others of his race have finished their training and are employed in aircraft
and ship construction in the Puget Sound area. And their efficient workmanship has
won high praise from employers.
Working on a night shift (if he is employed later in defense work) will not
be a new experience for Joe. In his training at the Seattle NYA center, he goes to the
shops at 4:30 in the afternoon and works until 1 o'clock the next morning ... In a
modern new dormitory he has a lower bed in a double-decker bunk. Making his own
bed is part of his daily routine.
Dormitories are crowded with the 450 youths now in training, and order
has to be maintained at all times. ...The Saluskins at Wapato, Joe's home on the
reservation before he came to Seattle, would be proud to see how he has stepped into
life at the student project. Off duty Joe visits with other Indians from the Yakima
Tribe and from other reservations. Coast Indians tell him about life along the
shores of Puget Sound and the North Pacific. Or he takes part in athletic games.
If you should be visiting the project, don't be surprised if you hear a sud-
den war whoop. More than likely it will come from Oscar Jones, resident project
supervisor, instead of one of his Indian students. It's his way of calling them together.
"I learned the war whoop last summer when I had charge of about 150 In-
dians fighting a forest fire on the slope of Mount Hood," explained Jones, as he gave
a fairly convincing demonstration.
"After we licked the fire we put on a celebration and the Indians did a
war dance. I learned how to do that, too."
Athletic contests on the triangular "campus" of the Seattle school often
reveal exceptional athletes. Baseball appeals to Joe Saluskin. In one baseball game
Joe found himself playing on a team with an Indian catcher, George Sampson, who had
been a star on the diamond.
In shop classes five nights weekly Joe gets a daily minimum of four hours'
work experience and four hours of classroom instruction. Training periods vary from
one to ten months, depending on the type of work a youth is learning. Joe's choice -
riveting - usually takes from four to six weeks. While learning to build war planes,
Joe receives $30 per month. About $20 of this goes for board, room and laundry. If
he gets a jcb at the Boeing plant after finishing his training, he will be paid a minimum
of from $30 to $40 a week. The project has a standing order from aircraft and ship-
yard plants, according to Supervisor Jones, for graduates in all types of mechanical
work. Hundreds of youths have been placed in defense work since the project was
opened last year..
"Our machine shop graduates have gone to jobs in Pearl Harbor and
Dutch Harbor since the war began," said Jones.
Youths between 17
must show birth certificates,
that he is a native American.
and 24 years of age are accepted for training. All
Joe Saluskin of the Yakimas had little trouble proving
George Sampson Working On An Airplane Motor, NY A Defense Training School
By Theodore Ho Haas
I began my second field trip for the Indian Service fatigued, worried, and
a little bit discouraged. Why? Whatever help the Indian Office could furnish meant
very much to most of the Indians since they had very little. There was so much
work to do and so little time to do it. Delay seemed costly, and progress slow.
For two weeks Ben Reifel and I worked with Indians of the Belknap Res-
ervation and the Sioux of South Dakota, codifying their laws and discussing their
problems. I returned to the Capital revivified and full of hope. In several tribes I
saw the rebirth of democracy. Tribal governments were working and improving.
Often in the face of appalling economic conditions and other handicaps, these Indians
were striving and struggling to create a better life.
As my train rattled eastward, technical aspects of our problems, legal,
economic, sociological, and anthropological, were forgotten. My mind was permeated
with visions of some of the Indians whom I had met. Their names on letters and res-
olutions, ordinances and council minutes would no longer be mere musical notes or
comic phrases. Henceforth they would symbolize vibrant personalities.
Outstanding Indian Leaders
Out of a series of meetings with Indian councils, committees, and com-
munities, out of the hundreds of minutes and tribal ordinances which I read during
my brief mission, there flitted through my tired mind some glimpses of outstanding In-
dian leaders inaction. First appears a young tribal secretary, sacrificing his Sabbath
and two evenings in order to help in the codification of his tribal laws. By his side
is a chairman of the tribal council who asks us to stay longer. When we reply that
only a blizzard could keep us since we promised to participate in a conservation
conference in Minneapolis, he smilingly remarks that he will use his magic stones
to bring a severe snowstorm.
My mind turns to another tribe - a tribal chairman, honorable and able,
and two other councilmen patiently watch us clarify and classify their tribal laws.
They readily answer our questions on what was intended by an ambiguous phrase or
by two inconsistent ordinances. A memorandum is needed which is in another build-
ing. Over my protest the chairman insists upon acting as a messenger to secure it.
The secretary of this council who had first been suspicious of our codification work,
ceases to ask snarling questions and says: "i want to type. I want to do something
helpful too." Working enthusiastically day and night in an unheated room is the sec-
retary of the superintendent, a member of a neighboring tribe. Her only fear is that
we will not finish in the allotted time. Never have I seen a better, more enthusiastic
Their faces blur and fade. A new picture appears. A tribal council is in
session. On Lincoln's birthday, from morning until night, they listen to me explain
the purpose of codification and read their laws as they were originally enacted and
as they were codified. I suggest that one ordinance need not be read because it was
not amended and was so clear that its working was left unchanged. My suggestion is
overruled. "There are," remarks one sage councilman, "six newly elected council-
men who don't know this ordinance and we others need a review." This is typical of
this council's seriousness. One member who is late a few minutes due to a heavy
snowfall is severely reprimanded and penalized. Every word spoken is taken down
and a speaker cannot later revise his utterances. I am interrupted continually by
questions - a Departmental letter, rescinding an ordinance; knotty problems of in-
terpretation of a provision of an ordinance; queries involving sections of the tribal
constitution and charter and a treaty, etc. Each councilman listens attentively. With
what eagerness do they seek understanding and knowledge! How appreciative and
modest they are! "We have so much to learn," said their wise chairman sadly.
With what frankness did he stress their ignorance of some minute and complicated
law! What humility in the face of their achievements! This council had recently
solved in a statesmanly manner a difficult problem of corruption, receiving without
publicity or scandal, the equivalent of money misappropriated. We could learn much
from these people in this and other fields.
As I recall this meeting my pictures are displaced by philosophic
thoughts. In these tribal governments there is no governing class, self- contented
and smug, like some of us working in a luxurious building in a beautiful city, isolated
from the grass roots and sometimes ignorant of the basic facts involved in the prob-
lem we confidently seek to solve. Here are legislators working with and a part of
the people whom they govern.
Despite their efforts and ours, stark tragedy stalks in their midst in the
form of disease and poverty and war. They are used to tragedy and meet it stoically.
Discouraged by adversity or delay? They are not discouraged. When saddened by
the difficulty of our problems and frequency of our failures, when upset by the world
conflagration, let us gather strength and hope from these leaders of a great people.
Removed from their ancestral home usually to barren places, they live on islands
wherein they maintain part of their culture although dashed by the waves of a differ-
ent culture. We should not despair. With a little help the Indian people will hasten
the dawn of a new day.
Members Of Pine Ridge Sioux Tribal Council Confer With Commissioner Collier
INDIAN POLICY AFTER THE CIVIL WAR
Uncle Sam's Stepchildren . The Reformation of United States Indian Pol-
icy, 1865-1887, by Loring Benson Priest. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick,
New jersey. $3.75.
In his introductory chapters the author sketches briefly the policy of con-
centrating Indians within restricted localities, the controversy over the proposed re-
transfer of the administration of Indian affairs from the Interior Department back to
the War Department, the nomination of Indian agents by the churches, the establish-
ment of the Board of Indian Commissioners, and then the rising interest in Indian
reforms during the years 1865 to 1885.
Dr. Priest's major task is to report the destruction of the old Indian
system and the formulation of a new Indian policy. Five chapters are designated re-
spectively: The Treaty System and Tribal Autonomy, the Annuity System and Con-
gressional Economy, the Reservation System, the Problem of Indian Education, and
the Last Stand of Supporters of the Old Indian System. The author in these chapters
discloses a wide reading of the literature upon Indians and exhaustive study of origi-
nal records. His discussions are temperate and the conclusions supported by the
When Dr. Priest reaches the final section of his book, namely, the Form-
ulation of the New Indian Policy, he raises questions that still have possibilities of
wide disagreement. Two brief chapters are devoted to reform devices considered or
adopted prior «.o the year 1880. The following chapters deal with the controversy that
was waged so earnestly - even bitterly - during the decade following 1879 upon the
subject of allotting lands to Indians in severalty. Here, as elsewhere in the book, the
author displays a non-partisan and judicial attitude. However, he seems at times
disposed to ascribe to contestants the motives that were attributed to them by their
contemporary opponents. In the treatment of highly controversial subjects this is
The final chapter refers in the most abbreviated manner to the failure of
the General Allotment Act of 1887 to achieve the purposes that were anticipated by
its proponents but declares that: "in spite of the failure of the Dawes Act, the spon-
sors of Indian reform in the years following the Civil War deserve praise for their
work." The author concludes that the unfortunate results of allotment were due, not
to legislative error, but to mistakes on the part of administrators.
This is a book of substantial value to the student of Indian affairs, wheth-
er he believes that the allotment policy marked an advance in Indian administration
or constituted the greatest mistake in the history of Federal experimentation with a
In his preface, Dr. Priest graciously acknowledges the assistance of sev-
eral individuals and organizations - among them, Mr. Brent Morgan of the Indian Of-
fice Mails and Files Division - in making old records available to him. Reviewed by
T. P. Kinney . General Production Supervisor, CCC-ID.
Drew Mike, Paiute Student From Leevining, California,
Learns Auto Mechanics At Carson Indian School, Nevada.
Indians In the Ale
The Alabama-Coushatta Indians are signing up 100 per cent for civilian
defense. The Indians are participating in first-aid training and have expressed their
willingness to serve their country in every way possible. Houston , Texas . The Post .
Ute Indians at a tribal meeting framed a protest against white discrimi-
nation in refusing the Indians permission to hunt off the reservation after the Utes
had given white hunters permission to hunt on reservation lands. The Fish and
Game Director immediately called a meeting and signed a "reciprocal hunting trea-
ty" with the Indians. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Post. 12-18-41.
The Chippewas - this time the women of the tribe - went on the warpath
recently. Forty Indian women decided at a pow-wow to form a rifle brigade to get
any parachute troops who might descend in these parts - be they Japanese, Germans
or Italians. San Jose, California . The Mercury- Herald. 12-18-41.
Chief Beaver Moon of the Yakima Tribe, is on the warpath. The 23 -year-
old Oregon Indian interrupted a theological course at Sterling, Kansas, college to
join the Navy. He enlisted as William W. Spencer, which is what Uncle Sam calls
him. Harrisburg , Pennsylvania. The Telegraph. 1-22-42.
Sight has been extended for years to 663 trachoma sufferers treated dur-
ing the first six months of a new control program of the Oklahoma State Health De-
partment. A total of 4,358 people have been examined since the Department's first
diagnostic clinic was started almost six months ago at Sallisaw. All persons having
"eye trouble" were invited to the clinics. The State Health Department, charged
with the control of communicable diseases, follows the pioneering of the United
States Indian Service in the work of finding trachoma cases and providing treatment
for those unable to pay a private physician. New methods of treatment with a drug of
the sulfa family make possible the broad scale public health attack on trachoma.
Oklahoma City , Oklahoma. The Oklahoman. 2-26-42.
"We feel like fighting," was the comment of Cleo Medicine Horse, aged
20, a three-quarter blood Crow Indian, as he was sworn into the United States
Marine Corps recently. Medicine Horse said that about 68 Crow Indians have volun-
teered for Army service, in addition to those drafted. Butte, Montana . The Standard.
Chief Whirling Cloud, leader of 1,600 Chippewa Indians who live on the St.
Croix Reservation near Superior, Wisconsin, feels much more natural with a monkey
wrench in his hand than a tomahawk. Chief Whirling Cloud, unlike most Indians who
are inducted as infantry scouts, is serving his country as a mechanic in the Medical
Corps at Camp Blanding. LaCrosse, Wisconsin . The Tribune . 3-5-42.
"I'll scalp the Japs if I get near one," Joe Big Sam, 27-year-old Indian of
Arlee, Montana, said as he announced that he would become a part of the armed
forces early in March. Big Sam said he expected to leave for Fort Lewis and that
he would bring back his trophies to "decorate the town of Arlee after the war is ov-
er." Missoula , Montana . The Missoulian. 3-6-42.
The Yakima Indians are forging ahead as stockmen and farmers, thanks
to the policy adopted a few years ago by the Indian Office. Given opportunity to prove
their worth and afforded long-withheld assistance from the Government, they are
developing rapidly as substantial citizens and adding to the economic wealth of the
Yakima Valley. In 1941 they grew nearly a half-million dollars worth of agricultural
products, which netted them $202,881 and provided $12,000 worth of foodstuffs for
their own consumption. The Yakimas are ideally suited to the livestock business and
they should make even greater progress in that and other lines within the next few
years. Yakima, Washington. The Herald . 1-20-42.
The Blackfeet Indians have adopted General Douglas MacArthur as a
member of their tribe and named him Mo-Kahki-Peta, Chief Wise Eagle. The color-
ful ceremonial rites were performed before a large portrait of the hero of the Phil-
ippines. Washington , D. C. The Times-Herald . 3-20-42 .
Because of the vital war need for conserving range resources, Laguna
Pueblo Indians made their recent round-up and sale of horses the largest in four
years. One hundred thirty-five owners participated in the combing of the 225,000
acres of Laguna range land for old, worn-out and inferior classes of animals, and
joined in a cooperative sale disposing of 139 head of horses and burros. It was the
sixth annual round-up held by these Indians. During the last six years the Laguna In-
dians have removed 847 head of horses and burros from their ranges. Albuquerque,
New Mexico . The_ Journal. 1-26-42.
The increase in industrial activity resulting from the war has absorbed
virtually all employable Indians on New York State reservations, the State Board of
Social Welfare revealed in its annual report. The report stated: "The gypsum com-
panies on the Tonawanda Reservation are operating at full capacity and the Aluminum
Company of America, near the St. Regis Reservation, is employing a majority of the
Indians who live there." Buffalo, New York . The News. 3-13-42.
A touch of the old West came to Minneapolis today when fifteen Indians
from Turtle Mountain Reservation near Belcourt, North Dakota, two of them wear-
ing feather headdresses and carrying tomahawks, joined the Navy. Minneapolis , Min-
nesota. The Journal. 3/25/42 .
The Okfuskee County Indian Red Cross unit had added $92 to the emer-
gency war fund and claimed the distinction of being the most active group of Indians
in the State. Chief Alex Noon of the Creek Tribe praised the county Indians for their
"wholehearted efforts on the war programs." Oklahoma City , Oklahoma. The Okla-
Indians Of The Northwest Celebrate A Treaty And Pledge Their Allegiance Anew
By Mildred Jenkins
For three days each January, tribes of Northwest Indians from the United
States and Canada gather on the Swinomish Reservation in Washington to commemo-
rate the signing of the Muckilteo Treaty of January 22, 1855.
Inside the longhouse, on a low bed-shelf, extending along the walls, vis-
iting Indians spread their robes and mats for sleeping. Across one end is a lean-to
kitchen where the Swinomish people who are hosts, prepare great quantities of food
to serve several hundred guests. Beside a log fire, near the kitchen of the smoke-
house, are roasting ducks and sticks of barbecuing red salmon. The good smell
rises and floats about with the thin blue smoke from the fire. Three other fires are
ranged down the length of the dirt-padded floor, giving warmth and light to the win-
The smoky room is crowded with people; everywhere is the spirit of hap-
piness and renewed friendships. For three days feasting, visiting and ancient games
take place. On the twenty- second the speeches begin. One by one the orators,
chiefs and leaders, record their accomplishments, their hopes for the future. Not
once do they complain. Here, truly, is royalty. Here is nobility - accepting what is
left of their hard and glorious past and building a future upon it.
Proudly they speak of their hospitals and the medical aid to their people,
of education and of improvement in their homes. They look forward to greater ac-
complishments in the future. They speak reverently of this, their country, and renew
their pledges to defend it.
For three nights the log fires burn. Showers of sparks spurt upward to-
ward the patch of star-studded night where the "shakes" have been left off the roof
for the smoke to escape. Greedy flames run their tongues around the fresh chunks,
brightening the coppery faces about the fires. Wrinkled faces of wise old men and
women, staid faces of older parents and strong faces of younger parents surrounded
by expectant, wide-eyed children and impatient young people. Benches and bed-
shelves are crowded, all are waiting. The center space about the fires is left open.
The low murmur of tom-toms slowly rises above the drone of voices.
Louder and louder challenge the drums and suddenly six figures in black race madly
from the shadows and circle the fires. Now they run with bare feet lifting high, now
they bounce on crouched legs, arms and fingers spread, high peaked black headdress
of long hair jerking in rhythm. Round and round they go, then with a final burst from
the drums, they disappear. Only the crackling of the fires disturbs the silence of the
long shadowy room.
A. Dancer Sheds His 80 Years
Out of the hush the low rhythmic rattle of dry deer hoofs pulses upon the
consciousness, swelling and swelling. Now the tom-toms softly join in, the music
growing until it fills the air almost to bursting. A lone dancer circles the fires, his
arms outstretched, bare feet springing. Bands of deer hoofs below his knees and
around his ankles clack the beat with each step. Now faster and faster, suddenly slow
again, around and around the fires. Eighty years old this dancer, but he has shed his
years and again answers the song of the deer hoofs calling for fleetness of foot. The
drums reach a vibrant high pitch then, stop suddenly as the old man settles back on
the bench beside his wife. Tenderly she removes his hood and hands him a drink of
Again the drum song surges loudly and the scalping dancer flaunts and
wields his knife as his beautiful feather headdress sways to the rhythm of his body.
Circling the fires, he cries out.
An Indian maiden in buckskin-beaded dress and moccasins moves as a
butterfly on winged feet. Her lovely face uplifted, she calls upon the Great Spirit to
bring health and happiness to everyone.
Gnarled Brown Hands
On and on, throughout the night, dance after dance, tells stories of hunt-
ing, of war, of sickness, of love. The fire tenders throw on more logs and dancing
spirits respond to the quickened blaze. Tom-toms softly coax and loudly challenge.
Blue smoke fills the corners and clings to the great rafters. An old gray-haired
grandmother with gnarled brown hands and arms gracefully spread, steps lightly to
the song of voices and drums. Round and round until it seems she must surely drop.
But no, she carries on, her bare feet stirring up little puffs of dust. At last she re-
turns to her seat. More old people tell their stories in dance, years rolling away.
Young men proclaim their power and strength in leaps and bounds and loud cries.
A soft sweet melody swells upon the air, growing and growing as voices
join in, until the whole room is filled with song - the friendship song. Gently clapping
hands, tapping cedar sticks, clacking deer hoof rattles, muted drums, voices old and
young, blend into lovely music and happy smiles on coppery faces.
At daybreak the celebration is ended. Blankets and mats are folded, cos-
tumes and drums are carefully packed into cars. The guests take leave with ever-
ready promises to return next year.
NOTICE: SEVEN ROLLING KITCHENS AVAILABLE
James H. Hyde, Fort Totten Agency, Fort Totten, North Dakota writes:
"Among the equipment transferred to us from the Army are eight field
kitchens. These are merely large stoves mounted on wheels. We propose to make
use of one of these as a portable outside canning kitchen during the canning season.
Do you know of other agencies that might want one of these kitchens?"
Extension Division suggests that any interested official write Superinten-
dent Hyde for details.
Indian Schools Adjust Schedules To Aid War Work
Many Federal Indian schools have already inaugurated a six-day week in
place of the former five-day schedule in order to release students and faculty mem-
bers early this spring for jobs in the war industries and for farm work. Six large
Indian vocational schools offer intensive training in skills vital to the war industries
and about 40 Indian CCC camps conduct similar training courses. Some 2,500 Indians
have already been placed in aircraft, tank, ship building and other war employment.
Summer educational leave for Indian Service teachers has been cancelled
but annual leave will be granted in the interests of health in all employee requests
which do not seriously impair the war program. The shorter school term is expected
to reduce operating costs, the savings to be used for the purchase of seed, livestock
and poultry in the food raising victory campaign.
Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas, the largest Federal Indian vocation-
al school, will accomplish 50 per cent more this year with its streamlined program.
With the introduction of the six-day week, three full semesters of 90 school days
each can be offered in the place of the usual two semesters and short summer ses-
Haskell Institute is unique in that it is the only Federal school with a
commercial department designed exclusively to train Indians for Government clerical
positions. At the close of the last school term, more than 20 Haskell students quali-
fied on competitive Civil Service examinations and shortly afterward received jobs
in Washington, D. C.
Dean King, Haskell Institute Student, Tests Electric Motors In The Trades Shop
Jrom the Mail Dag
Blackfeet Indians In War And Peace
Dear Mr. Collier:
I am a faithful reader of the little magazine called ''Indians At Work."
Being a Blackfeet Indian from the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, Montana, I naturally
scan the pages for something about the Blackfeet Indians, but rarely ever see any-
thing but once in every two or three years. However, I feel it is probably the fault of
us, the Blackfeet, and those who are at the head of the various departments. There
are innumerable interesting projects on the reservation. I feel it is a pity other
tribes do not have the pleasure of seeing them in "Indians At Work."
We could submit material on our arts and crafts and our Arts and Crafts
Store. The persons who buy for the store are all Indian women and they judge all
crafts work before accepting it. I might add that I am one of the buyers; also presi-
dent of the future "Organized Clubs of Montana" and president of all local clubs of
our reservation Arts and Crafts Council. As a buyer, I am proud to say the Black-
feet Indians do the finest bead work of all the tribes in Montana. I can say this as I
have seen bead work done by the several tribes in this State.
We have Blackfeet boys who are very good artists. They did the buffalo
murals which hang in the Plains Museum. They are a credit to any artist.
There is the Indian CCC's work of building bridges, dams and ditches,
and other projects which are carried on as well as any private contractor could with
years of experience.
The Blackfeet Tribe donated $1,000 toward the $50,000,000 requested by
the Red Cross, and in addition, has bought $20,000 worth of Defense Bonds. We have
about 100 boys in the Army and Navy. (My husband's five brothers have enlisted; he,
the last one, is 40 years old, and he says he is going to enlist in the Navy.) Thus it
is throughout the tribe.
A very moving ceremony took place in one of our community halls. The
older Indians were holding a victory dance for two of our boys who were leaving for
service. After the victory march, an old Indian named Three Calves recited the fol-
lowing prayer (quoted in part):
"Our forefathers fought bravely for this our country; we as young men
fought bravely for our country. Now go and fight as your forefathers did. Do not
come back until our country is free. What the war is about we Indians do not know,
but our Great White Father is calling us to help. We must go."
Continuing, he offered the prayer to the sun and to the Great Spirit
(Sgd.) Mae A. Williamson
Indian Boy Buys Defense Stamps With Marble Winnings
Dear Mr. Collier:
Since our local Washington's Birthday program there has been a marked
interest in the people here purchasing Defense Stamps. One Indian boy in particular
has been very active and has bought more stamps than usual for a boy of his age - he
is about ten. His father gets a very moderate monthly income as a bus driver and I
know they have none to spare, as the salary check is used up in buying subsistence
for the family. I asked the father recently where Maurice was getting his dimes to
buy the Defense Stamps and his reply was this: "Maurice is a good marble player
and each evening he generally has a pocketful of marbles he won from his playmates.
When they are broke he sells the marbles back to them and so gets funds to buy De-
I thought you might be interested in this little story of truly American
(Sgd.) George H. Malone,
Porcupine Trading Company, Porcupine, S.D.
He Wants To Finish The Japs First
In reply to your letter of March 7, regarding a position as Assistant (In-
dian-Clerk) at Hopi Agency, Arizona, I regret to say that I cannot accept the position
offered me. The reason I cannot accept the position is that I have been deferred by
the Army until June 1, 1942, so that I might complete my commercial training. It
would not be wise for me to take a position and leave it inside of two months. I have
definitely made up my mind to finish this spring, and go home for a while before en-
listing in the United States Navy.
I greatly appreciate your considering me for a position, but I have anoth-
er job waiting for me - that is to finish what the Japs started. After getting through
with the Japs I will be available for any position you offer me.
(Sgd.) James Randall
Haskell Institute, Lawrence, Kansas
(Note: Mr. Randall is a full-blood Apache Indian from the San Carlos Agency,
Frank Apachito, Navajo, In
Woodworking Shop Of Santa
Fe School, New Mexico.
INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MOBILIZES FOR VICTORY
By Harry B. Gauss
Assistant to the Director of Information, Department of the Interior
The Department of the Interior, responding to a call for service fund-
amentally almost as important as a tour of duty with combat forces on land, sea or
air, was placed on a war emergency basis on December 16, 1941, under the provisions
of Order No. 1629, promulgated by Secretary Harold L. Ickes. Issued following the
declaration of war, the order stipulated that "all actions resulting from declaration
of war will have precedence over all other duties. 5 '
Placing before each individual employee of the Department, both in Wash-
ington and in the field, the direct responsibility and privilege for patriotic war serv-
ice, Secretary Ickes' order clearly outlined the task confronting the personnel in the
conduct of the war.
"Our immediate and primary function is the full mobilization of the na-
tion's natural resources for war," he said. "The successful conclusion of this war
requires that our peace-time and defense jurisdiction over resources, including met-
als, minerals, petroleum and its products, solid fuels, electrical energy, and other
physical items essential to our national survival, be placed upon a basis best suited
to serve our military and naval forces without waste and with a view to saving all
that we can of such resources for future generations."
War Resources Council
To make possible the maximum effort toward the accomplishment of this
vital program, working time for Departmental employees was increased to forty-four
hours per week on January 26th, under Order No. 1633, and a War Resources Council
in the Department, under the directorship of Michael W. Straus, was established by
Order No. 1636, dated January 14th.
A definite program of war objectives has been completed by the Council
and is now in process of accomplishment in the various bureaus of the Department.
This, briefly, is the bed-rock foundation upon which war activities of the
Department personnel are based. It gives to every scientist, specialist, technician,
planner, and worker in the Department of the Interior an opportunity to contribute
actively to the nation's need now. It places upon each the responsibility for a full
share in the victorious completion of the hazardous pathway from Pearl Harbor to
Fortunately, the long experience of the Department in conserving these
very resources for the time of need will now ease the task of turning them to the
supreme effort, and at the same time will protect the resources themselves from
foolish, shortsighted, or wasteful exploitation.
Obviously, some of the details of our program must be kept from the
eyes and ears of the enemy. However, overly-cautious individual censorship on the
part either of the bureaus or personnel might easily have the same sabotaging effect
as indiscriminate conversation. The successful accomplishment of our program de-
mands that private industry should continue to be provided with technical and special-
ized information essential to the development of the war objective. The general pub-
lic as well should be furnished with salient facts concerning our activities which will
afford an intelligent understanding of the problems facing us. The necessary indus-
trial cooperation and popular support will depend in large measure upon the observ-
ance of these prudent information policies.
Without, however, revealing the size, location, condition, or other mili-
tarily-pertinent facts concerning numerous elements in the Department's victory
program, each member of its war-time personnel can find satisfaction in the fact that
Nature has placed at the disposal of the Nation a potential force of resources that
figuratively might be divided into five "fighting commands." Mobilized under unified
supervision, each of these resource-armies is of vital importance to the war effort,
and each is dependent upon the contribution of the individual employee for its suc-
cessful recruitment, maintenance, and operations.
The first of these natural armies consists of metals for war. Machines
have made this war unique and have raised metals to first rank among essential war
material. Only an increasing production of ores can keep the factories running, la-
bor busy, and the Army and Navy supplied with fighting planes, weapons and ships.
Production on a victory scale by turning known unexploited and low-grade materials
into metals now worth more than gold is the immediate objective of the Department
in connection with this resource. New explorations in many states, in which colleges
and universities may make available the services of their engineering faculties for
the exploratory work, are among the angles of this problem confronting the Depart-
Oil And Fuels For War
Oil for war is another "fighting command" of natural resources being
marshalled under the victory program, while "power for war" constitutes a third
element of the resource-army under mobilization by the trained personnel of the
The fourth fighting command is embodied in fuels for war. Solid fuels
are the source of half of all the nation's energy supplied by fuels including oil and
gas and by water power. Coal is the prime mover of industry, and the basic source
of heat and motive power for manufacturing, public utilities and the home; coke fires
the blast furnaces in the steel mills. The principal supply of many basic chemicals
necessary for making munitions, paints, medicines, artificial silk, plastics, etc., is
obtained as by-products of the manufacture of. coke from coal. The development,
production and utilization of this vast fighting force is a major element in the victory
Spread across the broad front of expansive public domain acreage is the
mighty resource-army of land, water and timber for war. Its multitudinous tactical
advantages range from the providing of timber for the nation's armed forces; irriga-
tion water for the production of food; forage facilities on the Federal range from
whence come meat, wool and leather for the nation's fighting men and civilian popu-
lation; and land for use in military operations, recreational areas, and other pur-
poses. The most efficient adaption of this element in the war effort to the victory
program is an outstanding responsibility of the Departmental personnel.
This, then, is our war problem; this our patriotic duty calling for un-
stinted service by individuals united in a supreme effort to carry President Roose-
velt's declaration that "we will win this war and we will write the peace" to a vic-
INDIANS CONSERVING AND REBUILDING
THEIR RESOURCES THROUGH CCC-ID
"Victory Year" Outlined For Indian Conservation Corps
By D. E. Murphy
Director, Indian Division, CCC
April 5, 1942, will mark the ninth anniversary of the signing by President
Roosevelt of the Executive Order establishing the Civilian Conservation Corps. The
CCC Director has requested that appropriate ceremonies be held at all camps in ob-
servance of this anniversary. The Director's letter states, in part:
"Undoubtedly, most companies already are planning to hold their cus-
tomary open house celebrations of the Corps' anniversary sometime during the per-
iod March 28 to April 5. It is my hope that all CCC camps, where such action can be
taken without interference with work programs, will take advantage of the Corps'
birthday to hold open house exercises which will give the general public an opportun-
ity to view at first-hand Corps activities which are contributing to the national war
effort. The decision as to whether anniversary exercises of any type will be held in
camps working on military reservations or strategic areas will, of course, be con-
trolled by the military commanders of such areas.
"in forwarding the ideas outlined in this letter to field officials, please
ask them to convey to all CCC personnel my keen appreciation for the outstanding
contribution the Corps has made and is making to tne war effort."
Let's think of our program now in terms of war work construction, and
war resource protection and development.
Let's set up a quota of the trained men whom we can supply to industry
and to the armed forces.
Let's conserve machinery, reclaim scrap metal, save rubber, save gas-
oline, develop and conserve needed materials - and work harder.
Let's strengthen our facilities for protection and preservation of our re-
sources, our fire suppression crews, our facilities for guarding irrigation structures
and other public works, our forest and range protection organizations, our morale
Let's do our full part to make 1942 a "Victory Year
SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION LIBRARIES
3 9088 01625 0771
Indians Of Santa Ana Pueblo, New Mexico (Page 6)